top of page

Group

Public·8 members
Esteban Hernandez
Esteban Hernandez

Bakteriya: The Oldest and Most Diverse Life Forms on Earth


Bakteriya: What are they and why are they important?




Bacteria are microscopic organisms that consist of one biological cell. They belong to a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms, which means that they do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria are among the oldest and most abundant life forms on Earth, and they play a vital role in many aspects of nature and human society. In this article, we will explore what bacteria are, how they are classified, what types of bacteria exist, how diverse and widespread they are, how they interact with other organisms, and how they can be used for various applications.


Introduction




Bacteria are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms that often consist of one biological cell. They have a simple cell structure compared to many other organisms. Their genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA, which is located in the cytoplasm. Some bacteria also have extra circles of genetic material called plasmids, which can carry genes for specific functions or traits. Bacteria have a cell wall that protects them from the environment and gives them shape. Some bacteria also have a capsule that surrounds the cell wall and helps them adhere to surfaces or evade immune responses. Bacteria can have different shapes, such as rods, spheres, spirals, or filaments. Some bacteria can move by using appendages called flagella or pili.




bakteriya


Download: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Ft.co%2F5HBXgMvREl&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw24zpWIeLXXEXcOlD9vm1WF



Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, about 3.5 billion years ago. They are present in most habitats on Earth, from soil to water to air to extreme environments such as hot springs or radioactive waste. Bacteria play a vital role in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients and fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies; bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.


Humans and most other animals carry vast numbers (approximately 10 13 to 10 14) of bacteria. Most are in the gut, and there are many on the skin. Most of the bacteria in and on the body are harmless or rendered so by the protective effects of the immune system, and many are beneficial, particularly the ones in the gut. However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, such as cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, tuberculosis, tetanus and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.


Bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology ,and the Continuing the article: Types of bacteria




Bacteria can be classified into different types based on various criteria, such as shape, cell wall structure, metabolism, and genetic features. One of the most common ways to classify bacteria is based on their mode of nutrition, which determines how they obtain energy and carbon for growth and maintenance. Based on this criterion, bacteria can be divided into two major groups: autotrophic and heterotrophic.


Autotrophic bacteria




Autotrophic bacteria are bacteria that can synthesize their own organic molecules from inorganic sources, such as carbon dioxide, water, and minerals. They use energy from light or chemical reactions to drive this process. Autotrophic bacteria can be further classified into two subgroups: phototrophic and chemotrophic.


Phototrophic bacteria




Phototrophic bacteria are bacteria that use light as their energy source. They have pigments that capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Phototrophic bacteria can be divided into two types: oxygenic and anoxygenic. Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, while anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria do not. Examples of oxygenic phototrophic bacteria are cyanobacteria, which are also known as blue-green algae. They are the most abundant and diverse group of phototrophic bacteria, and they are responsible for most of the primary production in aquatic ecosystems. Examples of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are purple sulfur bacteria and green sulfur bacteria, which use hydrogen sulfide or sulfur as electron donors instead of water.


Chemotrophic bacteria




Chemotrophic bacteria are bacteria that use chemical reactions as their energy source. They oxidize inorganic or organic compounds and use the released electrons to generate ATP through cellular respiration. Chemotrophic bacteria can be divided into two types: chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria use organic compounds as their electron donors, while chemolithotrophic bacteria use inorganic compounds as their electron donors. Examples of chemoorganotrophic bacteria are most heterotrophic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which use glucose or other organic molecules as their energy source. Examples of chemolithotrophic bacteria are nitrifying bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, which oxidize ammonia or nitrite to nitrate.


bakteriya hüceyrəsi


bakteriya təsnifatı


bakteriya infeksiyası


bakteriya fotosintez


bakteriya qidalanması


bakteriya tənəffüsü


bakteriya simbiyozu


bakteriya patogenliyi


bakteriya antibiotiklər


bakteriya fermentasiyası


bakteriya genetikası


bakteriya metabolizmi


bakteriya vaksinləri


bakteriya biotexnologiyası


bakteriya ekologiyası


bakteriya biofilm


bakteriya endosporu


bakteriya fajları


bakteriya plazmidi


bakteriya transdüksiyası


bakteriya konjugasiyası


bakteriya transformasiyası


bakteriya mutasiyası


bakteriya rezistensiyası


bakteriya identifikasiyası


bakteriya kultivasiyası


bakteriya mikroskopiyası


bakteriya morfolojiyası


bakteriya gram boyanması


bakteriya katalaz testi


bakteriya oksidaz testi


bakteriya koaqülaz testi


bakteriya indol testi


bakteriya üreaz testi


bakteriya sitrat testi


bakteriya MRVP testi


bakteriya TSİ testi


bakteriya LİA testi


bakteriya SIM testi


bakteriya KİA testi


bakteriya EMB agarı


bakteriya MAÇONKİ agarı


bakteriya BLOD agarı


bakteriya SABURAU agarı


bakteriya MANNİTOL agarı


Heterotrophic bacteria




Heterotrophic bacteria are bacteria that cannot synthesize their own organic molecules from inorganic sources. They depend on external sources of organic matter for their nutrition. They obtain energy and carbon by breaking down organic molecules through fermentation or cellular respiration. Heterotrophic bacteria can be classified into different types based on their nutritional requirements, such as obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, microaerophiles, and aerotolerant anaerobes.


- Obligate aerobes are heterotrophic bacteria that require oxygen for cellular respiration. They cannot grow in the absence of oxygen. Examples of obligate aerobes are Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus subtilis. - Obligate anaerobes are heterotrophic bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration for energy production. They can only grow in the absence of oxygen. Examples of obligate anaerobes are Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani. - Facultative anaerobes are heterotrophic bacteria that can use both oxygen and fermentation for energy production. They can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Examples of facultative anaerobes are Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. - Microaerophiles are heterotrophic bacteria that require low levels of oxygen for cellular respiration. They cannot grow in high or low concentrations of oxygen. Examples of microaerophiles are Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. - Aerotolerant anaerobes are heterotrophic bacteria that use fermentation for energy production. They do not use oxygen but can tolerate its presence. Examples of aerotolerant anaerobes are Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial diversity and distribution




Bacteria are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of organisms on Earth. They have been estimated to comprise about half of the world's biomass and to outnumber all other living things by at least 10 times. Bacteria have been found in almost every habitat imaginable, from the deepest oceans to the highest mountains, from the hottest deserts to the coldest ice caps, from the human body to the nuclear Continuing the article: Types of bacteria




Bacteria can be classified into different types based on various criteria, such as shape, cell wall structure, metabolism, and genetic features. One of the most common ways to classify bacteria is based on their mode of nutrition, which determines how they obtain energy and carbon for growth and maintenance. Based on this criterion, bacteria can be divided into two major groups: autotrophic and heterotrophic.


Autotrophic bacteria




Autotrophic bacteria are bacteria that can synthesize their own organic molecules from inorganic sources, such as carbon dioxide, water, and minerals. They use energy from light or chemical reactions


About

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...

Members

  • bipulsantoorray
  • Kamindu Nim
    Kamindu Nim
  • Esteban Hernandez
    Esteban Hernandez
  • Ann May
    Ann May
  • Everett Jones
    Everett Jones
Group Page: Groups_SingleGroup
bottom of page